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BSc. IT (Information Technology)

BSc. IT is the abbreviation of the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology degree course offered by Mumbai university. This course is divided into six semesters spread across 3 years. It has been designed as a job-oriented course that caters to the needs of the IT Industry. Some of the important concepts one will come across in the BSc. IT course are Information Databases, Networks, Software development, programming and testing.

Given the high competition and constant upswings and downswings in the IT sector, a sound knowledge of IT skills is essential to land a decent job in this sector. And thanks to the arrival of Digital India movement and Tech Startups boom, the demand for skilled IT professionals is once again on the rise.

The colleges in which students enroll for the graduate degree course in BSc. IT might not always equip them with in-depth IT skills, thereby leaving them woefully underprepared for exams as well as for a job in the IT industry. Hrishi Computer Education, one of the best training institutes in Mumbai North (Vasai, Virar, Palghar) region, provides BSc. IT classes/ coaching for all subjects across all semesters. Our institute has the good infrastructure facilities and excellent faculty to coach, guide and mentor students pursuing the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology degree course. This makes us the Best Information Technology Training Institute In Vasai.


6 Months


6 Days/ 2 Hours

Given below is the Latest Semester-Wise Syllabus for the Course

Semester (FYBSc.IT)

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction, Fundamentals

Types of Programming languages, History, features and application. Simple program logic, program development cycle, pseudocode statements and flowchart symbols, sentinel value to end a program, programming and user environments, evolution of programming models., desirable program characteristics.

Structure of a program. Compilation and Execution of a Program, Character Set, identifiers and keywords, data types, constants, variables and arrays, declarations, expressions, statements, Variable definition, symbolic constants.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Operators and Expressions, Data Input and output

Operators and Expressions:
Arithmetic operators, unary operators, relational and logical operators, assignment operators, assignment operators, the conditional operator, library functions.

Data Input and output:
Single character input and output, entering input data, scanf function, printf function, gets and puts functions, interactive programming.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Conditional Statements and Loop, Functions

Conditional Statements and Loops:
Decision Making Within A Program, Conditions, Relational Operators, Logical Connectives, If Statement, If-Else Statement, Loops: While Loop, Do While, For Loop. Nested Loops, Infinite Loops, Switch Statement

Overview, defining a function, accessing a function, passing arguments to a function, specifying argument data types, function prototypes, recursion, modular programming and functions, standard library of c functions, prototype of a function: foo1lal parameter list, return type, function call, block structure, passing arguments to a function: call by reference, call by value.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Program structure, Preprocessor , Arrays

Program structure:
Storage classes, automatic variables, external variables, static variables, multifile programs, more library functions.

Features, #define and #include, Directives and Macros.

Definition, processing, passing arrays to functions, multidimensional arrays, arrays and strings.

5 Unit

Unit 5: Pointers, Structures and Unions

Fundamentals, declarations, Pointers Address Operators, Pointer Type Declaration, Pointer Assignment, Pointer Initialization, Pointer Arithmetic, Functions and Pointers, Arrays and Pointers, Pointer Arrays, passing functions to other functions

Structures and Unions:
Structure Variables, Initialization, Structure Assignment, Nested Structure, Structures and Functions, Structures and Arrays: Arrays of Structures, Structures Containing Arrays, Unions, Structures and pointers.

1 Unit

Number System, Binary Arithmetic

Number System:
Analog System, digital system, numbering system, binary number system, octal number system, hexadecimal number system, conversion from one number system to another, floating point numbers, weighted codes binary coded decimal, non-weighted codes Excess – 3 code, Gray code, Alphanumeric codes – ASCII Code, EBCDIC, ISCII Code, Hollerith Code, Morse Code, Teletypewriter (TTY), Error detection and correction, Universal Product Code, Code conversion.

Binary Arithmetic:
Binary addition, Binary subtraction, Negative number representation, Subtraction using 1’s complement and 2’s complement, Binary multiplication and division, Arithmetic in octal number system, Arithmetic in hexadecimal number system, BCD and Excess – 3 arithmetic.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates, Minterm, Maxterm and Karnaugh Maps

Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates:
Introduction, Logic (AND OR NOT), Boolean theorems, Boolean Laws, De Morgan’s Theorem, Perfect Induction, Reduction of Logic expression using Boolean Algebra, Deriving Boolean expression from given circuit, exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR gates, Universal Logic gates, Implementation of other gates using universal gates, Input bubbled logic, Assertion level.

Minterm, Maxterm and Karnaugh Maps:
Introduction, minterms and sum of minterm form, maxterm and Product of maxterm form, Reduction technique using Karnaugh maps –2/3/4/5/6 variable K-maps, Grouping of variables in K-maps, K-maps for product of sum form, minimize Boolean expression using K-map and obtain K-map from Boolean expression, Quine Mc Cluskey Method.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Combinational Logic Circuits, Arithmetic Circuits

Combinational Logic Circuits:
Introduction, Multi-input, multi-output Combinational circuits, Code converters design and implementations

Arithmetic Circuits:
Introduction, Adder, BCD Adder, Excess – 3 Adder, Binary Subtractors, BCD Subtractor, Multiplier, Comparator.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Multiplexer, Demultiplexer , ALU , Encoder and Decoder, Sequential Circuits: Flip-Flop

Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, ALU, Encoder and Decoder:
Introduction, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Decoder, ALU, Encoders.

Sequential Circuits: Flip-Flop:
Introduction, Terminologies used, S-R flip-flop, D flip-fop, JK flip-flop, Race-around condition, Master – slave JK flip-flop, T flip-flop, conversion from one type of flip-flop to another, Application of flip-flops.

5 Unit

Unit 5: Counters, Shift Register

Introduction, Asynchronous counter, Terms related to counters, IC 7493 (4-bit binary counter), Synchronous counter, Bushing, Type T Design, Type JK Design, Pre settable counter, IC 7490, IC 7492,Synchronous counter ICs, Analysis of counter circuits.

Shift Register:
Introduction, parallel and shift registers, serial shifting, serial–in serial–out, serial–in parallel–out , parallel–in parallel–out, Ring counter, Johnson counter, Applications of shift registers, Pseudo-random binary sequence generator, IC7495, Seven Segment displays, analysis of shift counters.

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction, Processes and Threads

What is an operating system? History of operating system, computer hardware, different operating systems, operating system concepts, system calls, operating system structure.

Processes and Threads:
Processes, threads, inter-process communication, scheduling, IPC problems.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Memory Management, File Systems

Memory Management:
No memory abstraction, memory abstraction: address spaces, virtual memory, page replacement algorithms, design issues for paging systems, implementation issues, segmentation.

File Systems:
Files, directories, file system implementation, file-system management and optimization, MS-DOS file system, UNIX V7 file system, CD ROM file system.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Input-Output, Deadlocks

Principles of I/O hardware, Principles of I/O software, I/O software layers, disks, clocks, user interfaces: keyboard, mouse, monitor, thin clients, power management.

Resources, introduction to deadlocks, the ostrich algorithm, deadlock detection and recovery, deadlock avoidance, deadlock prevention, issues.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Virtualization and Cloud, Multiple Processor Systems

Virtualization and Cloud:
History, requirements for virtualization, type 1 and 2 hypervisors, techniques for efficient virtualization, hypervisor microkernels, memory virtualization, I/O virtualization, Virtual appliances, virtual machines on multicore CPUs, Clouds.

Multiple Processor Systems
Multiprocessors, multicomputers, distributed systems.

5 Unit

Unit 5: Case Study on LINUX and ANDROID, Case Study on Windows

Case Study on LINUX and ANDROID:
History of Unix and Linux, Linux Overview, Processes in Linux, Memory management in Linux, I/O in Linux, Linux file system, security in Linux.

Android - Case Study on Windows
History of windows through Windows 10, programming windows, system structure, processes and threads in windows, memory management, caching in windows, I/O in windows, Windows NT file system, Windows power management, Security in windows.

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction, Set Theory, the Logic of Compound Statements

TVariables, the Language of Sets, the Language of Relations and Function

Set Theory:
Definitions and the Element Method of Proof, Properties of Sets, Disproofs , Algebraic Proofs, Boolean Algebras, Russell’s Paradox and the Halting Problem.

The Logic of Compound Statements:
Logical Form and Logical Equivalence, Conditional Statements, Valid and Invalid Arguments

2 Unit

Unit 2: Quantified Statements, Elementary Number Theory and Methods of Proof

Quantified Statements:
Predicates and Quantified Statements, Statements with Multiple Quantifiers, Arguments with Quantified Statements

Elementary Number Theory and Methods of Proof:
Introduction to Direct Proofs, Rational Numbers, Divisibility, Division into Cases and the Quotient-Remainder Theorem, Floor and Ceiling, Indirect Argument: Contradiction and Contraposition, Two Classical Theorems, Applications in algorithms.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Sequences, Mathematical Induction, and Recursion, Functions

Sequences, Mathematical Induction, and Recursion:
Sequences, Mathematical Induction, Strong Mathematical Induction and the Well-Ordering Principle for the Integers, Correctness of algorithms, defining sequences recursively, solving recurrence relations by iteration, Second order linear homogenous recurrence relations with constant co-efficient. General recursive definitions and structural induction

Functions Defined on General Sets, One-to-One and Onto, Inverse Functions, Composition of Functions, Cardinality with Applications to Computability.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Relations, Graphs and Trees

Relations on Sets, Reflexivity, Symmetry, and Transitivity, Equivalence Relations, Partial Order Relations

Graphs and Trees:
Definitions and Basic Properties, Trails, Paths, and Circuits, Matrix Representations of Graphs, Isomorphism’s of Graphs, Trees, Rooted Trees, Isomorphism’s of Graphs, Spanning trees and shortest paths.

5 Unit

Unit 5: Counting and Probability

Counting and Probability:
Introduction, Possibility Trees and the Multiplication Rule, Possibility Trees and the Multiplication Rule, Counting Elements of Disjoint Sets: The Addition Rule, The Pigeonhole Principle, Counting Subsets of a Set: Combinations, r-Combinations with Repetition Allowed, Probability Axioms and Expected Value, Conditional Probability, Bayes’ Formula, and Independent Events.

1 Unit

Unit 1: The Seven Cs of Effective Communication, Set Theory, Understanding Business Communication

The Seven Cs of Effective Communication:
TCompleteness, Conciseness, Consideration, Concreteness, Clarity, Courtesy, Correctness

Understanding Business Communication:
Nature and Scope of Communication, Non-verbal Communication, Cross-cultural communication, Technology-enabled Business Communication

2 Unit

Unit 2: Writing Business Messages and Documents

Writing Business Messages and Documents:
Business writing, Business Correspondence, Instructions, Business Reports and Proposals, Career building and Resume writing.

Developing Oral Communication Skills for Business:
Effective Listening, Business Presentations and Public Speaking, Conversations, Interviews

3 Unit

Unit 3: Developing Oral Communication Skills for Business

Developing Oral Communication Skills for Business:
Meetings and Conferences, Group Discussions and Team Presentations, Team Briefing,

Understanding Specific Communication Needs:
Communication across Functional Areas

4 Unit

Unit 4: Understanding Specific Communication Needs

Understanding Specific Communication Needs:
Corporate Communication, Persuasive Strategies in Business Communication, Ethics in Business Communication, Business Communication Aids

5 Unit

Unit 5: Presentation Process

Presentation Process:
Planning the presentations, executing the presentations, Impressing the audience by performing, Planning stage: Brainstorming, mind maps / concept maps, executing stage: chunking theory, creating outlines, Use of templates. Adding graphics to your presentation: Visual communication, Impress stage: use of font, color, layout, Importance of practice and performance.

Semester (FYBSc.IT)

1 Unit

Unit 1: Object Oriented Methodology, Principles of OOPS

Object Oriented Methodology:
Introduction, Advantages and Disadvantages of Procedure Oriented Languages, what is Object Oriented? What is Object Oriented Development? Object Oriented Themes, Benefits and Application of OOPS.

Principles of OOPS:
OOPS Paradigm, Basic Concepts of OOPS: Objects, Classes, Data Abstraction and Data Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism, Dynamic Binding, Message Passing

2 Unit

Unit 2: Classes and Objects, Constructors and Destructors

Classes and Objects:
Simple classes (Class specification, class members accessing), Defining member functions, passing object as an argument, Returning object from functions, friend classes, Pointer to object, Array of pointer to object.

Constructors and Destructors:
Introduction, Default Constructor, Parameterized Constructor and examples, Destructors

3 Unit

Unit 3:Polymorphism, Virtual Functions

Concept of function overloading, overloaded operators, overloading unary and binary operators, overloading comparison operator, overloading arithmetic assignment operator, Data Conversion between objects and basic types

Virtual Functions:
Introduction and need, Pure Virtual Functions, Static Functions, this Pointer, abstract classes, virtual destructors.

4 Unit

Unit 4:Program development using Inheritance, Exception Handling

Program development using Inheritance:
Introduction, understanding inheritance, Advantages provided by inheritance, choosing the access specifier, Derived class declaration, derived class constructors, class hierarchies, multiple inheritance, multilevel inheritance, containership, hybrid inheritance.

Exception Handling:
Introduction, Exception Handling Mechanism, Concept of throw & catch with example

5 Unit

Unit 5: Templates, Working with Files

Introduction, Function Template and examples, Class Template and examples.

Working with Files:
Introduction, File Operations, Various File Modes, File Pointer and their Manipulation

1 Unit

Unit 1: Microprocessor, microcomputers, and Assembly Language

Microprocessor, Microprocessor Instruction Set and Computer Languages, From Large Computers to Single-Chip Microcontrollers, Applications.

Microprocessor Architecture and Microcomputer System:
Microprocessor Architecture and its operation’s, Memory, I/O Devices, Microprocessor-Based System Application.

8085 Microprocessor Architecture and Memory Interface:
Introduction, 8085 Microprocessor unit, 8085-Based Microcomputer, Memory Interfacing, Interfacing the 8155 Memory Segment, Illustrative Example: Designing Memory for the MCTS Project, Testing and Troubleshooting Memory Interfacing Circuit, 8085-Based Single-Board microcomputer.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Interfacing of I/O Devices

Basic Interfacing concepts, Interfacing Output Displays, Interfacing Input Devices, Memory Mapped I/O, Testing and Troubleshooting I/O Interfacing Circuits.

Introduction to 8085 Assembly Language Programming
The 8085 Programming Model, Instruction Classification, Instruction, Data and Storage, Writing assembling and Execution of a simple program, Overview of 8085 Instruction Set, Writing and Assembling Program.

Introduction to 8085 Instructions:
Data Transfer Operations, Arithmetic Operations, Logic Operation, Branch Operation, Writing Assembly Languages Programs, Debugging a Program.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Programming Techniques with Additional Instructions

Programming Techniques: Looping, Counting and Indexing, Additional Data Transfer and 16-Bit Arithmetic Instructions, Arithmetic Instruction Related to Memory, Logic Operations: Rotate, Logics Operations: Compare, Dynamic Debugging.

Counters and Time Delays:
Counters and Time Delays, Illustrative Program: Hexadecimal Counter, Illustrative Program: zero-to-nine (Modulo Ten) Counter, Generating Pulse Waveforms, Debugging Counter and Time-Delay Programs.

Stacks and Sub-Routines
Stack, Subroutine, Restart, Conditional Call, Return Instructions, Advanced Subroutine concepts.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Code Conversion, BCD Arithmetic, and 16-Bit Data Operations

BCD-to-Binary Conversion, Binary-to-BCD Conversion, BCD-to-Seven-Segment-LED Code Conversion, Binary-to-ASCII and ASCII-to-Binary Code Conversion, BCD Addition, BCD Subtraction, Introduction to Advanced Instructions and Applications, Multiplication, Subtraction with Carry.

Software Development System and Assemblers:Flip-Flop:
Microprocessors-Based Software Development system, Operating System and Programming Tools, Assemblers and Cross-Assemblers, Writing Program Using Cross Assemblers.

The 8085 Interrupt, 8085 Vectored Interrupts, Restart as S/W Instructions, Additional I/O Concepts and processes.

5 Unit

Unit 5: The Pentium and Pentium Pro microprocessors:

Introduction, Special Pentium registers, Memory management, Pentium instructions, Pentium Pro microprocessor, Special Pentium Pro features.

Core 2 and later Microprocessors:
Introduction, Pentium II software changes, Pentium IV and Core 2, i3, i5 and i7.

SUN SPARC Microprocessor:
Architecture, Register file, data types and instruction format

1 Unit

Unit 1: Internet and the World Wide Web

What is Internet? Introduction to internet and its applications, E-mail, telnet, FTP, e-commerce, video conferencing, e-business. Internet service providers, domain name server, internet address, World Wide Web (WWW): World Wide Web and its evolution, uniform resource locator (URL), browsers – internet explorer, Netscape navigator, opera, Firefox, chrome, Mozilla. Search engine, web saver – apache, IIS, proxy server, HTTP protocol

Set Theory, HTML5:
Introduction, Why HTML5? Formatting text by using tags, using lists and backgrounds, Creating hyperlinks and anchors. Style sheets, CSS formatting text using style sheets, formatting paragraphs using Stylesheets.

2 Unit

Unit 2: HTML5 Page layout and navigation

Creating navigational aids: planning site organization, creating text based navigation bar, creating graphics based navigation bar, creating graphical navigation bar, creating image map, redirecting to another URL, creating division based layouts: HTML5 semantic tags, creating divisions, creating HTML5 semantic layout, positioning and formatting divisions.

HTML5 Tables, Forms and Media:
Creating tables: creating simple table, specifying the size of the table, specifying the width of the column, merging table cells, using tables for page layout, formatting tables: applying table borders, applying background and foreground fills, changing cell padding, spacing and alignment, creating user forms: creating basic form, using check boxes and option buttons, creating lists, additional input types in HTML5, Incorporating sound and video: audio and video in HTML5, HTML multimedia basics, embedding video clips, incorporating audio on web page.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Java Script

Introduction, Client-Side JavaScript, Server-Side JavaScript, JavaScript Objects, JavaScript Security,

Assignment Operators, Comparison Operators, Arithmetic Operators, % (Modulus), ++ (Increment), -- (Decrement), -(Unary Negation), Logical Operators, Short-Circuit Evaluation, String Operators, Special Operators, ?: (Conditional operator), , (Comma operator), delete, new, this, void

Break, comment, continue, delete, do...while, export, for,, function, if...else, import, labelled, return, switch, var, while,with

Core JavaScript (Properties and Methods of Each):
Array, Boolean, Date, Function, Math, Number, Object, String, regExp

Document and its associated objects:
objects: document, Link, Area, Anchor, Image, Applet, Layer

Events and Event Handlers:
General Information about Events ,Defining Event Handlers, event, onAbort, onBlur, onChange, onClick,onDblClick, onDragDrop, onError, onFocus, onKeyDown, onKeyPress, onKeyUp, onLoad, onMouseDown, onMouseMove, onMouseOut, onMouseOver, onMouseUp, onMove, onReset,onResize, onSelect, onSubmit, onUnload

4 Unit

Unit 4: PHP

Why PHP and MySQL? Server-side scripting, PHP syntax and variables, comments, types, control structures, branching, looping, termination, functions, passing information with PHP, GET, POST, formatting form variables, superglobal arrays, strings and string functions, regular expressions, arrays, number handling, basic PHP errors/problems

5 Unit

Unit 5: Advanced PHP and MySQL

PHP/MySQL Functions, Integrating web forms and databases, Displaying queries in tables, Building Forms from queries, String and Regular Expressions, Sessions, Cookies and HTTP, E-Mail

1 Unit

Unit 1: Mathematical Modeling and Engineering Problem Solving, Approximations and Round-Off Errors, Truncation Errors and the Taylor Series

Mathematical Modeling and Engineering Problem Solving:
A Simple Mathematical Model, Conservation Laws and Engineering Problems

Approximations and Round-Off Errors:
Significant Figures, Accuracy and Precision, Error Definitions, Round-Off Errors.

Truncation Errors and the Taylor Series:
The Taylor Series, Error Propagation, Total Numerical Errors, Formulation Errors and Data Uncertainty.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations, Interpolation

Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations:
The Bisection Method, The Newton-Raphson Method,The Regula-falsi method, The Secant Method.

Forward Difference, Backward Difference, Newton’s Forward Difference Interpolation, Newton’s Backward Difference Interpolation,Lagrange’s Interpolation.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Solution of simultaneous algebraic equations (linear) using iterative methods, Numerical differentiation and Integration, Numerical solution of 1st and 2nd order differential equations

Solution of simultaneous algebraic equations (linear) using iterative methods:
Gauss-Jordan Method, Gauss-Seidel Method.

Numerical differentiation and Integration:
Numerical differentiation, Numerical integration using Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s 1/3rd and 3/8th rules.

Numerical solution of 1st and 2nd order differential equations:
Taylor series, Euler’s Method, Modified Euler’s Method, Runge-Kutta Method for 1st and 2nd Order Differential Equations.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Least-Squares Regression, Linear Programming

Least-Squares Regression:
Linear Regression, Polynomial Regression, Multiple Linear Regression, General Linear Least Squares, Nonlinear Regression

Linear Programming:
Linear optimization problem, Formulation and Graphical solution, Basic solution and Feasible solution.

5 Unit

Unit 5: Random variables, Distributions

Random variables:
Discrete and Continuous random variables, Probability density function, Probability distribution of random variables, Expected value, Variance.

Discrete distributions: Uniform, Binomial, Poisson, Bernoulli, Continuous distributions: uniform distributions, exponential, (derivation of mean and variance only and state other properties and discuss their applications) Normal distribution state all the properties and its applications.

1 Unit


Overview and Issues:
Problems: Toxins, Power Consumption, Equipment Disposal, Company’s Carbon Footprint: Measuring, Details, reasons to bother, Plan for the Future, Cost Savings: Hardware, Power.

Initiatives and Standards:
Global Initiatives: United Nations, Basel Action Network, Basel Convention, North America: The United States, Canada, Australia, Europe, WEEE Directive, RoHS, National Adoption, Asia: Japan, China, Korea.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Minimizing Power Usage, Cooling

Minimizing Power Usage:
Power Problems, Monitoring Power Usage, Servers, Low-Cost Options, Reducing Power Use, Data De-Duplication, Virtualization, Management, Bigger Drives, Involving the Utility Company, Low-Power Computers, PCs, Linux, Components, Servers, Computer Settings, Storage, Monitors, Power Supplies, Wireless Devices, Software.

Cooling Costs, Power Cost, Causes of Cost, Calculating Cooling Needs, Reducing Cooling Costs, Economizers, On-Demand Cooling, HP’s Solution, Optimizing Airflow, Hot Aisle/Cold Aisle, Raised Floors, Cable Management, Vapour Seal, Prevent Recirculation of Equipment Exhaust, Supply Air Directly to Heat Sources, Fans, Humidity, Adding Cooling, Fluid Considerations, System Design, Data centre Design, Centralized Control, Design for Your Needs, Put Everything Together.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Changing the Way of Work, Going Paperless

Changing the Way of Work:
Old Behaviors, starting at the Top, Process Reengineering with Green in Mind, Analyzing the Global Impact of Local Actions, Steps: Water, Recycling, Energy, Pollutants, Teleworkers and Outsourcing, Telecommuting, Outsourcing, how to Outsource.

Going Paperless:
Paper Problems, The Environment, Costs: Paper and Office, Practicality, Storage, Destruction, Going Paperless, Organizational Realities, Changing Over, Paperless Billing, Handheld Computers vs. the Clipboard, Unified Communications, Intranets, What to Include, Building an Intranet, Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007,Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Nuts and Bolts, Value Added Networks, Advantages, Obstacles.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Recycling, Hardware Considerations

Problems, China, Africa, Materials, Means of Disposal, Recycling, Refurbishing, Make the Decision, Life Cycle, from beginning to end, Life, Cost, Green Design, Recycling Companies, Finding the Best One, Checklist, Certifications, Hard Drive Recycling, Consequences, cleaning a Hard Drive, Pros and cons of each method, CDs and DVDs, good and bad about CD and DVDs disposal, Change the mind-set, David vs. America Online

Hardware Considerations:
Certification Programs, EPEAT, RoHS, Energy Star, Computers, Monitors, Printers, Scanners, All-in-Ones, Thin Clients, Servers, Blade Servers, Consolidation, Products, Hardware Considerations, Planned Obsolescence, Packaging, Toxins, Other Factors, Remote Desktop, Using Remote Desktop, Establishing a Connection, In Practice

5 Unit

Unit 5: Greening Your Information Systems, Staying Green

Greening Your Information Systems:
Initial Improvement Calculations, Selecting Metrics, Tracking Progress, Change Business Processes, Customer Interaction, Paper Reduction, Green Supply Chain, Improve Technology Infrastructure, Reduce PCs and Servers, Shared Services, Hardware Costs, Cooling.

Staying Green:
Organizational Check-ups, Chief Green Officer, Evolution, Sell the CEO, SMART Goals, Equipment Check-ups, Gather Data, Tracking the data, Baseline Data, Benchmarking, Analyze Data, Conduct Audits, Certifications, Benefits, Realities, Helpful Organizations.

Semester (SYBSc.IT)

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction

The Python Programming Language, History, features, Installing Python, Running Python program, Debugging : Syntax Errors, Runtime Errors, Semantic Errors, Experimental Debugging, Formal and Natural Languages, The Difference Between Brackets, Braces, and Parentheses

Variables and Expressions:
Values and Types, Variables, Variable Names and Keywords, Type conversion, Operators and Operands, Expressions, Interactive Mode and Script Mode, Order of Operations.

Conditional Statements:
if, if-else, nested if –else

for, while, nested loops

Control statements:
Terminating loops, skipping specific conditions

2 Unit

Unit 2: Functions

Function Calls, Type Conversion Functions, Math Functions, Composition, Adding New Functions, Definitions and Uses, Flow of Execution, Parameters and Arguments, Variables and Parameters Are Local, Stack Diagrams, Fruitful Functions and Void Functions, Why Functions? Importing with from, Return Values, Incremental Development, Composition, Boolean Functions, More Recursion, Leap of Faith, Checking Types Strings: A String Is a Sequence, Traversal with a for Loop, String Slices, Strings Are Immutable, Searching, Looping and Counting, String Meth

3 Unit

Unit 3: Lists

Values and Accessing Elements, Lists are mutable, traversing a List, Deleting elements from List, Built-in List Operators, Concatenation, Repetition, In Operator, Built-in List functions and methods

Tuples and Dictionaries:
Tuples, Accessing values in Tuples, Tuple Assignment, Tuples as return values, Variable-length argument tuples, Basic tuples operations, Concatenation, Repetition, in Operator, Iteration, Built-in Tuple Functions Creating a Dictionary, Accessing Values in a dictionary, Updating Dictionary, Deleting Elements from Dictionary, Properties of Dictionary keys, Operations in Dictionary, Built-In Dictionary Functions, Built-in Dictionary Methods

Text Files, The File Object Attributes, Directories

Built-in Exceptions, Handling Exceptions, Exception with Arguments, User-defined Exceptions

4 Unit

Unit 4: Regular Expressions

Regular Expressions:
Concept of regular expression, various types of regular expressions, using match function.

Classes and Objects:
Overview of OOP (Object Oriented Programming), Class Definition, Creating Objects, Instances as Arguments, Instances as return values, Built-in Class Attributes, Inheritance, Method Overriding, Data Encapsulation, Data Hiding

Multithreaded Programming:
Thread Module, creating a thread, synchronizing threads, multithreaded priority queue

Importing module, Creating and exploring modules, Math module, Random module, Time module

5 Unit

Unit 5: Creating the GUI Form and Adding Widgets

Button, Canvas, Checkbutton, Entry, Frame, Label, Listbox, Menubutton, Menu, Message, Radiobutton, Scale, Scrollbar, text, Toplevel, Spinbox, PanedWindow, LabelFrame, tkMessagebox. Handling Standard attributes and Properties of Widgets.

Layout Management:
Designing GUI applications with proper Layout Management features.

Look and Feel Customization:
Enhancing Look and Feel of GUI using different appearances of widgets.

Storing Data in Our MySQL Database via Our GUI:
Connecting to a MySQL database from Python, Configuring the MySQL connection, Designing the Python GUI database, Using the INSERT command, Using the UPDATE command, Using the DELETE command, Storing and retrieving data from MySQL database.

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction

Data and Information, Data Structure, Classification of Data Structures, Primitive Data Types, Abstract Data Types, Data structure vs. File Organization, Operations on Data Structure, Algorithm, Importance of Algorithm Analysis, Complexity of an Algorithm, Asymptotic Analysis and Notations, Big O Notation, Big Omega Notation, Big Theta Notation, Rate of Growth and Big O Notation.

Introduction, One Dimensional Array, Memory Representation of One Dimensional Array, Traversing, Insertion, Deletion, Searching, Sorting, Merging of Arrays, Multidimensional Arrays, Memory Representation of Two Dimensional Arrays, General Multidimensional Arrays, Sparse Arrays, Sparse Matrix, Memory Representation of Special kind of Matrices, Advantages and Limitations of Arrays.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Linked List

Linked List:
Linked List, One-way Linked List, Traversal of Linked List, Searching, Memory Allocation and De-allocation, Insertion in Linked List, Deletion from Linked List, Copying a List into Other List, Merging Two Linked Lists, Splitting a List into Two Lists, Reversing One way linked List, Circular Linked List, Applications of Circular Linked List, Two way Linked List, Traversing a Two way Linked List, Searching in a Two way linked List, Insertion of an element in Two way Linked List, Deleting a node from Two way Linked List, Header Linked List, Applications of the Linked list, Representation of Polynomials, Storage of Sparse Arrays, Implementing other Data Structures.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Stack, Queue

Introduction, Operations on the Stack Memory Representation of Stack, Array Representation of Stack, Applications of Stack, Evaluation of Arithmetic Expression, Matching Parenthesis, infix and postfix operations, Recursion.

Introduction, Queue, Operations on the Queue, Memory Representation of Queue, Array representation of queue, Linked List Representation of Queue, Circular Queue, Some special kinds of queues, Deque, Priority Queue, Application of Priority Queue, Applications of Queues.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Sorting and Searching Techniques

Bubble, Selection, Insertion, Merge Sort. Searching: Sequential, Binary, Indexed Sequential Searches, Binary Search.

Tree, Binary Tree, Properties of Binary Tree, Memory Representation of Binary Tree, Operations Performed on Binary Tree, Reconstruction of Binary Tree from its Traversals, Huffman Algorithm, Binary Search Tree, Operations on Binary Search Tree, Heap, Memory Representation of Heap, Operation on Heap, Heap Sort.

Advanced Tree Structures:
Red Black Tree, Operations Performed on Red Black Tree, AVL Tree, Operations performed on AVL Tree, 2- 3 Tree, B-Tree

5 Unit

Unit 5: Hashing Techniques

Hashing Techniques :
Hash function, Address calculation techniques, Common hashing functions Collision resolution, Linear probing, Quadratic, Double hashing, Bucket hashing, Deletion and rehashing.

Introduction, Graph, Graph Terminology, Memory Representation of Graph, Adjacency Matrix Representation of Graph, Adjacency List or Linked Representation of Graph, Operations Performed on Graph, Graph Traversal, Applications of the Graph, Reachability, Shortest Path Problems, Spanning Trees.

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction

Introduction :
Data communications, networks, network types, Internet history, standards and administration.

Network Models:
Protocol layering, TCP/IP protocol suite, The OSI model.

Introduction to Physical layer:
Data and signals, periodic analog signals, digital signals, transmission impairment, data rate limits, performance.

Digital and Analog transmission:
Digital-to-digital conversion, analog-to-digital conversion, transmission modes, digital-to-analog conversion, and analog-to-analog conversion.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Bandwidth Utilization, Transmission media, Switching, Introduction to the Data Link Layer

Bandwidth Utilization :
Multiplexing and Spectrum Spreading: Multiplexing, Spread Spectrum

Transmission media:
Guided Media, Unguided Media

Introduction, circuit switched networks, packet switching, and structure of a switch.

Digital and Analog transmission:
Link layer addressing, Data Link Layer Design Issues, Error detection and correction, block coding, cyclic codes, checksum, forward error correction, error correcting codes, error detecting codes.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Data Link Control

Data Link Control:
DLC services, data link layer protocols, HDLC, Point-to-point protocol. Media Access Control: Random access, controlled access, channelization, Wired LANs – Ethernet Protocol, standard Ethernet, fast Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, 10 gigabit Ethernet, Wireless LANs: Introduction, IEEE 802.11 project, Bluetooth, WiMAX, Cellular telephony, Satellite networks. Connecting devices and Virtual LANs. Data Link Control: DLC services, data link layer protocols, HDLC, Point-to-point protocol.

Media Access Control:
Random access, controlled access, channelization, Wired LANs – Ethernet Protocol, standard Ethernet, fast Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, 10 gigabit Ethernet

Wireless LANs:
Introduction, IEEE 802.11 project, Bluetooth, WiMAX, Cellular telephony, Satellite networks.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Introduction to the Network Layer

Introduction to the Network Layer:
Network layer services, packet switching, network layer performance, IPv4 addressing, forwarding of IP packets, Internet Protocol, ICMPv4, Mobile IP

Unicast Routing:
Introduction, routing algorithms, unicast routing protocols.

Next generation IP:
IPv6 addressing, IPv6 protocol, ICMPv6 protocol, transition from IPv4 to IPv6.

5 Unit

Unit 5: Introduction to the Transport Layer

Introduction to the Transport Layer:
Introduction, Transport layer protocols (Simple protocol, Stop-and-wait protocol, Go-Back-n protocol, Selective repeat protocol, Bidirectional protocols), Transport layer services, User datagram protocol, Transmission control protocol.

Standard Client0Server Protocols:
World wide-web and HTTP, FTP, Electronic mail, Telnet, Secured Shell, Domain name system.

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction to Databases and Transactions

Introduction to Databases and Transactions:
What is database system, purpose of database system, view of data, relational databases, database architecture, and transaction management

Data Models:
The importance of data models, Basic building blocks, Business rules, The evolution of data models, Degrees of data abstraction.

Database Design, ER Diagram and Unified Modeling Language Database design and ER Model:
overview, ER Model, Constraints, ER Diagrams, ERD Issues, weak entity sets, Codd’s rules, Relational Schemas, Introduction to UML

2 Unit

Unit 2: Relational database model

Relational database model:
Logical view of data, keys, integrity rules, Relational Database design: features of good relational database design, atomic domain and Normalization (1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF).

Relational Algebra and Calculus:
Relational algebra: introduction, Selection and projection, set operations, renaming, Joins, Division, syntax, semantics. Operators, grouping and ungrouping, relational comparison.

Tuple relational calculus, Domain relational Calculus, calculus vs algebra, computational capabilities.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Constraints, Views and SQL

Constraints, Views and SQL:
Constraints, types of constrains, Integrity constraints, Views: Introduction to views, data independence, security, updates on views, comparison between tables and views SQL: data definition, aggregate function, Null Values, nested sub queries, Joined relations. Triggers.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Transaction management and Concurrency

Transaction management and Concurrency:
Control Transaction management: ACID properties, serializability and concurrency control, Lock based concurrency control (2PL, Deadlocks), Time stamping methods, optimistic methods, database recovery management.

5 Unit

Unit 5: PL-SQL

Beginning with PL / SQL, Identifiers and Keywords, Operators, Expressions, Sequences, Control Structures, Cursors and Transaction, Collections and composite data types, Procedures and Functions, Exceptions Handling, Packages, With Clause and Hierarchical Retrieval, Triggers.

1 Unit

Unit 1: Matrices

Inverse of a matrix, Properties of matrices, Elementary Transformation, Rank of Matrix, Echelon or Normal Matrix, Inverse of matrix, Linear equations, Linear dependence and linear independence of vectors, Linear transformation, Characteristics roots and characteristics vectors, Properties of characteristic vectors, CaleyHamilton Theorem, Similarity of matrices, Reduction of matrix to a diagonal matrix which has elements as characteristics values.

Complex Numbers:
Complex number, Equality of complex numbers, Graphical representation of complex number(Argand’s Diagram), Polar form of complex numbers, Polar form of x+iy for different signs of x,y, Exponential form of complex numbers, Mathematical operation with complex numbers and their representation on Argand’s Diagram, Circular functions of complex angles, Definition of hyperbolic function, Relations between circular and hyperbolic functions, Inverse hyperbolic functions, Differentiation and Integration, Graphs of the hyperbolic functions, Logarithms of complex quality, j(=i)as an operator(Electrical circuits)

2 Unit

Unit 2: Equation of the first order and of the first degree

Equation of the first order and of the first degree:
Separation of variables, Equations homogeneous in x and y, Non-homogeneous linear equations, Exact differential Equation, Integrating Factor, Linear Equation and equation reducible to this form, Method of substitution.

Differential equation of the first order of a degree higher than the first:
Introduction, Solvable for p (or the method of factors), Solve for y, Solve for x, Clairaut’s form of the equation, Methods of Substitution, Method of Substitution.

Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients:
Introduction, The Differential Operator, Linear Differential Equation f(D) y = 0, Different cases depending on the nature of the root of the equation f(D) = 0, Linear differential equation f(D) y = X, The complimentary Function, The inverse operator 1/f(D) and the symbolic expiration for the particular integral 1/f(D) X; the general methods, Particular integral : Short methods, Particular integral : Other methods, Differential equations reducible to the linear differential equations with constant coefficients.

3 Unit

Unit 3: The Laplace Transform

The Laplace Transform:
Introduction, Definition of the Laplace Transform, Table of Elementary Laplace Transforms, Theorems on Important Properties of Laplace Transformation, First Shifting Theorem, Second Shifting Theorem, The Convolution Theorem, Laplace Transform of an Integral, Laplace Transform of Derivatives

Inverse Laplace Transform:
Shifting Theorem, Partial fraction Methods, Use of Convolution Theorem, Solution of Ordinary Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients, Solution of Simultaneous Ordinary Differential Equations, Laplace Transformation of Special Function, Periodic Functions, Heaviside Unit Step Function, Dirac-delta Function(Unit Impulse Function)

4 Unit

Unit 4: Multiple Integrals

Multiple Integrals:
Double Integral, Change of the order of the integration, Double integral in polar co-ordinates, Triple integrals.

Applications of integration:
Areas, Volumes of solids.

5 Unit

Unit 5: Beta and Gamma Functions

Beta and Gamma Functions:
Definitions, Properties and Problems. Duplication formula. Differentiation Under the Integral Sign Error Functions

Semester (SYBSc.IT)

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction

History, architecture and its components, Java Class File, Java Runtime Environment, The Java Virtual Machine, JVM Components, The Java API, java platform, java development kit, Lambda Expressions, Methods References, Type Annotations, Method Parameter Reflection, setting the path environment variable, Java Compiler And Interpreter, java programs, java applications, main(), public, static, void, string[] args, statements, white space, case sensitivity, identifiers, keywords, comments, braces and code blocks, variables, variable name.

Data types:
primitive data types, Object Reference Types, Strings, Auto boxing, operators and properties of operators, Arithmetic operators, assignment operators, increment and decrement operator, relational operator, logical operator, bitwise operator, conditional operator.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Control Flow Statements

Control Flow Statements:
The If…Else If…Else Statement, The Switch…Case Statement

The While Loop, The Do … While Loop, The For Loop, The Foreach Loop, Labeled Statements, The Break And Continue Statements, The Return Statement

Types of Classes, Scope Rules, Access Modifier, Instantiating Objects From A Class, Initializing The Class Object And Its Attributes, Class Methods, Accessing A Method, Method Returning A Value, Method's Arguments, Method Overloading, Variable Arguments [Varargs], Constructors, this Instance, super Instance, Characteristics Of Members Of A Class, constants, this instance, static fields of a class, static methods of a class, garbage collection.

3 Unit

Unit 3: Inheritance

Derived Class Objects, Inheritance and Access Control, Default Base Class Constructors, this and super keywords. Abstract Classes And Interfaces, Abstract Classes, Abstract Methods, Interfaces, What Is An Interface? How Is An Interface Different From An Abstract Class?, Multiple Inheritance, Default Implementation, Adding New Functionality, Method Implementation, Classes V/s Interfaces, Defining An Interface, Implementing Interfaces.

Creating Packages, Default Package, Importing Packages, Using A Package.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Enumerations, Arrays

Enumerations, Arrays:
Two Dimensional Arrays, Multi-Dimensional Arrays, Vectors, Adding Elements To A Vector, Accessing Vector Elements, Searching For Elements In A Vector, Working With The Size of The Vector.

The thread control methods, thread life cycle, the main thread, creating a thread, extending the thread class.

Catching Java Exceptions, Catching Run-Time Exceptions, Handling Multiple Exceptions, The finally Clause, The throws Clause

Byte Streams:
Reading console input, writing console output, reading file, writing file, writing binary data, reading binary data, getting started with character streams, writing file, reading file

5 Unit

Unit 5: Event Handling

Event Handling:
Delegation Event Model, Events, Event classes, Event listener interfaces, Using delegation event model, adapter classes and inner classes.

Abstract Window Toolkit:
Window Fundamentals, Component, Container, Panel, Window, Frame, Canvas. Components – Labels, Buttons, Check Boxes, Radio Buttons, Choice Menus, Text Fields, Text, Scrolling List, Scrollbars, Panels, Frames

Flow Layout, Grid Layout, Border Layout, Card Layout.

1 Unit

Unit 1: Introduction

Embedded Systems and general purpose computer systems, history, classifications, applications and purpose of embedded systems.

Core of Embedded Systems:
Microprocessors and microcontrollers, RISC and CISC controllers, Big endian and Little endian processors, Application specific ICs, Programmable logic devices, COTS, sensors and actuators, communication interface, embedded firmware, other system components.

Characteristics and quality attributes of embedded systems:
Characteristics, operational and non-operational quality attributes.

2 Unit

Unit 2: Embedded Systems – Application and Domain Specific

Embedded Systems – Application and Domain Specific:
Application specific – washing machine, domain specific - automotive.

Embedded Hardware:
Memory map, i/o map, interrupt map, processor family, external peripherals, memory – RAM , ROM, types of RAM and ROM, memory testing, CRC ,Flash memory.

Control and Status Registers, Device Driver, Timer Driver - Watchdog Timers.

3 Unit

Unit 3: The 8051 Microcontrollers

The 8051 Microcontrollers:
Microcontrollers and Embedded processors, Overview of 8051 family. 8051 Microcontroller hardware, Input/output pins, Ports, and Circuits, External Memory.

8051 Programming in C:
Data Types and time delay in 8051 C, I/O Programming, Logic operations, Data conversion Programs.

4 Unit

Unit 4: Designing Embedded System with 8051 Microcontroller

Designing Embedded System with 8051 Microcontroller:
Factors to be considered in selecting a controller, why 8051 Microcontroller, Designing with 8051.

Programming embedded systems:
Structure of embedded program, infinite loop, compiling, linking and debugging.

5 Unit

Unit 5: Real Time Operating System (RTOS), Design and Development

Real Time Operating System (RTOS):
Operating system basics, types of operating systems, Real-Time Characteristics, Selection Process of an RTOS.

Design and Development:
Embedded system development Environment – IDE, types of file generated on cross compilation, disassembler/ de-compiler, simulator, emulator and debugging, embedded product development life-cycle, trends in embedded industry.

1 Unit

Unit 1: The Mean, Median, Mode, and Other Measures of Central Tendency

The Mean, Median, Mode, and Other Measures of Central Tendency:
Index, or Subscript, Notation, Summation Notation, Averages, or Measures of Central Tendency ,The Arithmetic Mean , The Weighted Arithmetic Mean ,Properties of the Arithmetic Mean ,The Arithmetic Mean Computed from Grouped Data ,The Median ,The Mode, The Empirical Relation Between the Mean, Median, and Mode, The Geometric Mean G, The Harmonic Mean H ,The Relation Between the Arithmetic, Geometric, and Harmonic Means, The Root Mean Square, Quartiles, Deciles, and Percentiles, Software and Measures of Central Tendency.

The Standard Deviation and Other Measures of Dispersion:
Dispersion, or Variation, The Range, The Mean Deviation, The SemiInterquartile Range, The 10–90 Percentile Range, The Standard Deviation, The Variance, Short Methods for Computing the Standard Deviation, Properties of the Standard Deviation, Charlie’s Check, Sheppard’s Correction for Variance, Empirical Relations Between Measures of Dispersion, Absolute and Relative Dispersion; Coefficient of Variation, Standardized Variable; Standard Scores, Software and Measures of Dispersion.

Introduction to R:
Basic syntax, data types, variables, operators, control statements, R-functions, R –Vectors, R – lists, R Arrays